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The Baritone Saxophone . . . "Lumbering Leviathan or Versatile Voice?"

Tony Denton, Leeds College of Music, Leeds International Jazz Educators Conference, 1997

The aim of this paper is to -
Acknowledge the baritone saxophone soloists' debt to Duke Ellington; recognise the two major historical influences on the instrument; identify some of the qualities which give a clear hall-mark to individual styles; show examples of the richness of sound and range of expression in the hands of skilled exponents; and to examine which players are significant at the present time.

Historical Context

It is generally held that the two most influential exponents of the solo jazz baritone saxophone are Harry Carney and Gerry Mulligan. Together, they form an axis which has had considerable influence on successive generations of players.
However, all baritone players owe their greatest debt to Duke Ellington. For it was he who most sensitively scored the saxophone voice of Harry Carney. For example, he often gave the instrument the melody, or placed it at the top of the saxophone texture.1 This scoring, coupled with Carney's richness of tone, was an important part of what gave the Ellington Band its distinctive, and immediately recognisable sound. Indeed, so distinctive was Carney's sound, that Whitney Balliett, reviewing an Ellington concert in 1961, described him as ineluctable.2 Ellington used Carney as a featured soloist with the band, continuously from the late 1920's until his death in 1974. When he heard of Duke's death, Carney is reputed to have said "This is the worst day of my life. Without Duke, I have nothing to live for." 3 He died a little over four months later. It is Carney who is justifiable credited with having originated solo jazz playing on the baritone saxophone.

Example: Harry Carney (1930) - Ol' Man Blues
Duke Ellington and his Orchestra (sound track from the film 'Check and Double Check')

These early recordings have a certain 'novelty' sound quality to them, largely through the low-fidelity of the recordings, and the bubbling, arpeggiated, approach to solo style. Analysis of selected solos of the period, however, show great inventiveness and technical ability. Prior to Carney establishing the solo voice for the instrument, it largely featured in dance and light music ensembles, in classical saxophone quartets, and vaudeville groups such as the Six Brown Brothers (1914-20), and the Weintraub Syncopators, an ensemble of seven saxophones.4
During the 1930's and 1940's, the baritone was firmly established as an essential voice in the swing and big bands, although the examples of solo jazz playing during the period are limited. Players such as Jack Washington, with the bands of Benny Moten and Count Basie, Charlie Fowlkes, with Tiny Bradshaw, Lionel Hampton and Basie, and Ernie Caceres, with the bands of Bobby Hackett and Glen Miller, were among the more well known and successful players.5
The mid-1940's saw the East Coast/West Coast (bop versus cool) debate get under way, and the emergence of Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker and their contemporaries, whose style of playing, known as bop, incorporated fast phrasing, complex rhythms, and the use of more advanced harmonic concepts. The better-known baritone exponents from this period were Leo Parker and Cecil Payne - both very clearly bop-influenced in their harmonic approach and phrasing, and with a tonal quality and approach which owed a lot to Carney.

Example: Cecil Payne (1961) - Cool Blues
Cecil Payne performing Charlie Parker Music; Egmont AJS7-S (LP)

This brings us to the early 1950's. Among the major players active on the West Coast, were Jimmy Giuffre, Bob Gordon and Gerry Mulligan.
Serge Chaloff was also significant around this time. His phrasing owed a lot to bop, but his sound was lighter than his contemporaries, and his delivery, as a consequence, appeared much faster. Mulligan, recounting years later, described Serge as being "a very fleet player."6 Chaloff's involvement as a member of Woody Herman's famous band, which included the Four Brothers saxophone ensemble, gave him prominence, and also he made some important recordings in the mid-1950's under his own name.7 Serge was contently in trouble with Woody, however, over his use of narcotics, and there is the famous story of him throwing the baritone sax parts into the river to avoid being fired.8> His brief flowering was cut short by his death, at the age of 34, in July 1957.
Another player whose influence was limited by an early death, was Bob Gordon, killed at 27, in a road accident. The recorded examples of his work showed an individual voice and great skill and, had he lived, I believe that he would have been acknowledged as a considerable influence.9
During the late-1950's, Jack Nimitz emerged as an effective section and solo player in the bands of Woody Herman, Stan Kenton, and later on, Oliver Nelson, Bill Berry and Gerald Wilson. Nimitz was also involved as one of the founders of Supersax,'10 an ensemble which made its name by performing arrangements of the improvised solos of Charlie Parker.
Leaving Mulligan aside for a moment, it is Pepper Adams who emerges in importance from the late 1950's and the early 1960's, and who has the most durable record. Adams seems to have been active in certain key bands at significant times. For example, his work with the bands of Thelonious Monk, Charles Mingus, and Thad Jones-Mel Lewis. His performances on the Thelonious Monk at Town Hall, and the infamous Charles Mingus at Town Hall recordings are examples of his involvement in such performances. His stylistic development progressed from being heavily influenced by Coleman Hawkins, through a more adventurous use of harmonies. His forceful dynamic, 'hacking' sound, and rough, rasping tone, marked him out as a distinctive voice, and made him much sought after as a session player and solo performer.

Example: Pepper Adams (1959) - Little Rootie Tootie
The Thelonious Monk Orchestra at Town Hall, Riverside, OJCCD–135–2

Adams' stylistic and harmonic approach continued to develop throughout the 1960's, 1970's, and early 1980's, as evidenced in his recorded output. His use of complex sequences outside of the basic tonality, of repetitive rhythmic patterns based on bop phrasing, rotated through augmented or diminished scales, made his sound fresh and exciting, and ensured for him a healthy following. Here is another player whose sound owes much more to Carney than to Mulligan or to Chaloff.
Gerry Mulligan's work in bringing the instrument to wider public notice should not be under-estimated. His melodic line, lyricism, and freshness of sound, owed a lot to mainstream and Dixieland techniques and offered enormous appeal to a wide variety of listeners. His skill as an arranger and composer, coupled with his success over many years in forming and leading different types and sizes of ensemble, gave him an edge over other baritone players at the time. Note for example, his involvement as an arranger and player in 1949/50 with Gil Evans in the famous Miles Davis "Birth of the Cool" band.11 Further promotion of Mulligan by the media, as a youthful, cool, modern image, and a band-leader in his own right, gave him a wider appeal. His appearance in films, such as, "I want to Live" (1957),12 and "Jazz on a Summer's Day" (1958), served to re-enforce this image and popularity. All this, combined to form a platform for his solo playing which has endured for over 45 years.

Example: Gerry Mulligan (1995) - Ninth Life
Dragonfly, Telarc Jazz, CD–83377

This is one of Mulligan's last recordings, made a few months before his death in January 1996. It is clear from this, and from listening to his many other recordings from the intervening years, that his style and technique, although continually attractive, was effectively fully developed by the end of the 1950's.

Performing Context

The big band was always the proving ground and the mainstay of regular work for players and, although there are fewer big bands and fewer baritone players around now, this still remains the case today. Hamiett Bluiett (with Charles Mingus), Nick Brignola (with Woody Herman), Ronnie Cuber (with Maynard Ferguson), Charles Davis (with Thad Jones-Mel Lewis), Howard Johnson (with Charles Mingus) and Gary Smulyan (with Mel Lewis), are among the most notable players whose backgrounds are firmly based in big band work of the highest standard. There are many excellent recordings currently available in the catalogue to bear this out.13
Further interesting examples of solo jazz work can be found in the work of certain jazz saxophone quartets. Younger players such as Hamiet Bluiett with the World Saxophone Quartet, and Jim Hartog with the 29th Street Saxophone Quartet, are among the foremost exponents within the genre.

Example: Jim Hartog (1992) - Lafiya
The 29th Street Saxophone Quartet, BBC Recording (featuring Tommy Smith)

Discussion of the avant-garde developments in the field, are best left for a future presentation. Suffice to say, that it is players such as Charles Davis, and the UK's own John Surman, who are pushing at the boundaries. Charles Davis' work with Jazz Composer's Orchestra and, later, during the 1980's, with Abdullah Ibrahim, give him his credentials. While John Surman's work on extensions to the range of the instrument, the use of percussive techniques, and of pre-recorded tapes and synthesizers, has considerably advanced the instrument's capabilities.
Mainland Europe's most famous baritone player was Lars Gullin. He was active from 1950 to the mid-1970's, although from the mid-1960's, he mainly concentrated on composition. He was a major influence at the time, and his name appears in the personnel lists alongside a number of significant jazz musicians of the period.14>
The UK has produced its share of world-class players - John Barnes, Harry Klein, Ronnie Ross, John Surman, and Joe Temperley (one of our best exports), are all players who made the larger horn their main instrument, and were featured soloists, or led their own ensembles. One of the best big band players currently active is Jay Craig, who played for more than three years with the Buddy Rich Band, and is now regularly with the BBC Big Band. Alan Barnes and Julian Arguelles are both effective contributors, although the baritone saxophone is not their primary instrument. Along with John Barnes, they have both been nominated on baritone in the 1997 BT British Jazz Awards. (I note with some chagrin, however, that the baritone continues to be listed as a miscellaneous instrument in these polls!)

The Future

So who holds the key to the future? In whose hands is the instrument's safe-keeping?
Ronnie Cuber is an accomplished player who is influential among the younger generation of players. He established himself, not only through his early work with George Benson, but also with the big bands of Maynard Ferguson, Lionel Hampton and Woody Herman. More recently, he has worked extensively in Europe with his own quintet with Franco Ambrosetti (flugel horn), and acts as a visiting tutor to a number of European Jazz Conservatories.
I particularly like the solo work of Nick Brignola, and find in it the clearest exemplification of the traditions of Carney and Mulligan. His tonal quality and approach lie between those great masters and his phrasing and attack are an amalgamation of both styles. His interesting use of high-notes represent a development which advances the solo capabilities of the instrument.

Example: Nick Brignola (1996) - The Flight of the Eagle
The Flight of the Eagle, Reservoir, RSR CD 145

Gary Smulyan, who followed Pepper Adams into the Mel Lewis Orchestra, similarly demonstrates a particularly fluent, interesting and exciting style. Like Cuber and Brignola, Smulyan has complete technical control over his instrument as demonstrated in my last two recorded examples.

Example: Gary Smulyan (1993) - Apache Dance
Saxophone Mosaic, Criss Cross 1092 CD

In my view, Brignola, Smulyan and Cuber, have an essential lyricism, richness of sound, and excitement in projection, coupled with an optimum balance and complexity of harmony and rhythmic interest, which demonstrates that they have absorbed the best qualities of Harry Carney and Gerry Mulligan, and are maintaining the tradition.

I will close this brief presentation with an earlier example of Gary Smulyan. A recording made in 1990 when, as featured soloist with the Mel Lewis Orchestra, he took twenty searing choruses on Herbie Hancock's "The Eye of the Hurricane" at the Smithsonian Institute. With no apologies for the quality of the recording - I still find this performance as exciting as that of the famous Paul Gonsalves tenor solo at the 1956 Newport Jazz Festival.

Example: Gary Smulyan (1990) - Eye of the Hurricane
Mel Lewis Orchestra at the Smithsonian, BBC

It is significant that, in the history of the instrument, all the most successful baritone saxophone players have had very close associations with major big bands, and had sympathetic bandleaders to champion them. The moral to this must be - "If you are a baritone saxophone player, get yourself a sympathetic band leader - or form your own band!"

( 1997 Leeds International National Jazz Educators' Conference )

Brief biographies of some famous exponents

(Note: This list is not all-inclusive but reflects the personal taste and choice of the author.)

Park 'Pepper' Adams (b. Michigan Oct.1930 d. New York Sept.1986) worked first with Stan Kenton (1951), then served various periods in the big bands of Maynard Ferguson, Benny Goodman, Lionel Hampton, Thelonious Monk and Charles Mingus. Also, with the Thad Jones-Mel Lewis Orchestra (1965-76). Played in small groups with many famous jazz stars. Winner of the Downbeat Jazz Critic's Poll of 1957, in the "New Star" category. Noted for his use of adventurous harmonies, delivered with a gruff tone, and a robust sound. He was originally inspired by Coleman Hawkins and played tenor saxophone, but quickly came under the influence of Harry Carney and switched to the larger horn. Adams once remarked ". . . no baritone player should be afraid of the sound it makes. Carney isn't."

Gene Allen (b. Chicago Dec.1928) played with the bands of Louis Prima (1944-7), Claude Thornhill (1949-50), Tex Beneke (1951-3), Sauter-Finegan (1953-61), and Tommy Dorsey. He toured with Benny Goodman (1958, 1962), and with Gerry Mulligan (1957, 1960-2). He recorded with Manny Albam (1958, 1961-2), Woody Herman (1959, 1962) and Thelonious Monk (1963).

Hamiet 'Bunny' Bluiett (b. Illinois 1940) worked with Lester Bowie, Julius Hemphill, Oliver Lake. Was associated with the Black Artists Group (1968), Sam Rivers' Large Ensemble (1969), and the Charles Mingus Quintet and Big Band (1972-5). Formed the World Saxophone Quartet with Hemphill, Lake and David Murray (1976). An avant-garde player with a large sound, wide range, a fully developed technique and command of tone-colour.

Nick Brignola (b. New York July 1936 d. Feb.2002) worked with Herb Pomeroy and Cal Tjader (1958). Formed his own group (1959). Then with Sal Salvador and Woody Herman (1963). Toured Europe with Ted Curson (1967), explored electronic jazz-rock (1969), renewed his association with Curson (1974-1980's), recorded Baritone Madness (1974) and Burn Brigade (1979) with Pepper Adams, and Ronnie Cuber and Cecil Payne, respectively. An exciting player, mainly self-taught, with a husky, biting sound which lies some way between Carney and Mulligan.

Ernie Caceres (b. Rockport Texas Nov.1911 d. San Antonio Jan.1971) worked with Bobby Hackett (1938-9, 1944-5), Jack Teagarden (1939-40), Glenn Miller (40-2), Tommy Dorsey (1943), Benny Goodman (1943, 1944), Woody Herman (1944), and Billy Butterfield (1944-5). Also with Eddie Condon (1942-8). Stylistically a Dixielander, but an agile player with big sound.

Harry Howell Carney (b. Boston April 1910 d. New York Oct.1974) quintessential Ellington alumnus. First important jazz soloist on the baritone saxophone A notable exponent of the technique of circular breathing which became a feature of all Ellington's later concert performances.15 His rich sound became recognised as the definitive baritone saxophone sound.

Serge Chaloff (b. Boston Nov.1923 b. Boston Jul.1957) worked with Boyd Raeburn (1945) and Georgie Auld (1945). During the mid-1940's heard & assimilated Charlie Parker techniques. Was a member of the Woody Herman Herd (1947-9), (and of the famous Four Brothers saxophone section). An important figure of the bop movement.

Ronnie Cuber (b. New York Dec.1941) worked with Maynard Ferguson (1963-5), George Benson (1966-7), Woody Herman (1967), Lionel Hampton (1968), and Lee Konitz (1979). Active on the European Scene, including some teaching. Strongly influenced by Harry Carney and Pepper Adams.

Charles Davis (b. Goodman Michigan May 1933) worked with Ben Webster (1955), Billy Holiday (1956), Dinah Washington (1957-9), Kenny Dorham (1959-62), Sun Ra (1954-6, then intermittently into 1980's), Illinois Jacquet, Lionel Hampton & John Coltrane (1960's). Had his own group (1965-6). Worked with the Jazz Composer's Orchestra (1966-76), Louis Hayes (1972-4), Clark Terry's Big B-A-D Band (1973-9), Thad Jones–Mel Lewis Orchestra (1978), Barry Harris (1980-2), Dameronia and Philly Joe Jones Quartet (1981-4), Abdullah Ibrahim (from 1983). Has the tone of Leo Parker, the technique of Serge Chaloff, capable of operating in both mainstream and modern styles.

Charlie Fowlkes (b. New York Feb.1916 d. Dallas Feb.1980) worked with Tiny Bradshaw (1938-44), Lionel Hampton (1944-8), Arnett Cobb (1948-51), and Count Basie (1951-69; 1975-80). Mainly a section player, but took occasional solos - see Misty on Basie's Dance Along with Basie album (1959).

Bob Gordon (b. St Louis June 1928 d. Aug.1955) worked with Billy May (1952), Shelley Manne (1952), Maynard Ferguson (1952-5), Chet Baker (1953), Stan Kenton, Clifford Brown, Shorty Rogers (all in 1954), Pete Rugolo (1954-5), Tal Farlow (1955), and Jack Montrose (1954). A notable exponent of West Coast cool idiom. Killed in a car accident in 1955, driving a British Austin A40.

Jim Hartog (b. ?) founder of 29th Street Saxophone Quartet (1983) with Ed Jackson (alto), Rich Rothenberg (tenor), and Bobby Watson (alto).

Haywood Henry (b. Alabama Jan.1913) with Erskine Hawkins (1930-1950's), Wilbur de Paris (1960's), and Earl Hines 1969-71). Continued to play well into the 1980's.

Bill Hood (b. Oregon Dec.1924) established as a session player (1954-81), recorded with Chet Baker (1956), Bill Holman (1958), Shorty Rogers (1958-62), Marty Paich (1959), Dizzy Gillespie (1962, 1965), Sarah Vaughan (1962, 1972), and Zoot Sims (1976). In the mid-1960's, he co-led a quintet with Jack Nimitz. Continued playing into the 1980's.

Howard Johnson (b. Montgomery Aug.1941) worked with Charles Mingus (1964-6), Hank Crawford (1965), Archie Shepp (1966), also with Gil Evans from 1966 to mid-1980's, Jack DeJohnette (1984), Jimmy Heath (1985). Has appeared in concert performances at European Jazz Festivals with the George Gruntz Big Band. Has a big rich sound, and makes use of some avant-garde techniques. Is also a noted Tuba specialist.

Gerry 'Jeru' Mulligan (b. New York April 1927 d. Jan.1996)
As a Player – an innovator through the use of contrapuntal techniques with his piano-less quartet, first with Chet Baker (1952) then, with Bob Brookmeyer and later, Art Farmer. The Concert Big Band (13- piece) (1960), The Age of Steam (14-piece) (1972), 20-piece Big Band (1980), and the many various differing sizes of groups, are all perfect examples of Mulligan's sensitivity and effectiveness of scoring in order to present the best qualities of the instrument within an ensemble. Stylistically, he was fully developed at the close of the 1950's. His was a smoother, lighter sound, firmly set in the 'cool' idiom.
as an Arranger – primarily for himself, but initially for Gene Krupa, Elliot Lawrence, Claude Thornhill, Stan Kenton. Also, in collaboration with Gil Evans, in the important Miles Davis "Birth of the Cool" Nonet (1949-50).

Jack Nimitz (b. Washington Jan.1930) worked with Woody Herman (1953-5), and Stan Kenton (1956, 1959). With Johnny Mandel and David Amram in films during the 1960's, then continued to work as a studio musician well into the 1970's. One of the founders of Supersax. Toured extensively, and recorded, from 1972. Was associated with the Big Bands of Oliver Nelson (1966-7), Bill Berry (1974, 1976) and Gerald Wilson (1981). Noted for the secure foundation he provided in all his big band performances. More recently toured Europe and the UK.

Leo Parker (b. Washington Apr.1925 d. New York Feb.1962) worked with Billy Eckstine (1944-5, 1946), Dizzy Gillespie (1946) and Illinois Jacquet (1947-52). One of the finest performers in the bop style, combining this with an extroverted rhythm-and-blues idiom.

Pat Patrick (b. mid-west USA Nov.1929) worked with Sun Ra at intervals from 1953 into the 1980's, also with James Moody, John Coltrane (1961), Cootie Williams, Duke Ellington, the Jimmy Heath Orchestra (1960). Was a member of the Thelonious Monk Quartet (1970), and later with the Jazz Composer's Orchestra. A well-schooled and versatile soloist.

Cecil Payne (b. New York Dec.1922) worked briefly with J J Johnson and Roy Eldridge, before joining the Dizzy Gillespie Band (1946-9). After a spell with Tadd Dameron, he worked freelance. Joined Illinois Jacquet (1952-4), collaborated with Kenny Drew (and acted) in the play The Connection (1961-2). With Machito's Afro-Cubans (1963-4), Lionel Hampton (1964), Woody Herman (1966-7), Gillespie again (1968), and Count Basie (1969-71). A heavy-weight bop player, with great a technical command.

Sahib Shihab (b. Savannah Georgia June 1925 d. Oct.1989) born Edward Gregory but changed his name when he embraced the Muslim faith in 1947. Changed to baritone saxophone during the 1950's. Travelled to Europe with Quincy Jones at the end of the 1950's and worked with the Clarke-Boland Band for almost 10 years. Returned to the USA in the early 1970's. An agile soloist, with a remarkably light sound.

Gary Smulyan (b. ?) worked with the Mel Lewis Jazz Orchestra (1989) and, more recently, as soloist in his own small groups. A fluent post-bop player with complete control of his instrument.

Jack Washington (b. Kansas City July 1910 d. Oklahoma City Nov.1964) worked with Benny Moten (1927-35) and Count Basie (1936-43 and 1946-50). Took a day job but continued to work regularly with Bobby Knott's Band in Oklahoma City. Was very much influenced by Carney's big band work but exhibited limited solo activity.

European and UK players

John Barnes (b. Manchester May 1932) worked with the Alex Welsh Band (1964-78). Has worked freelance with Roy Williams, played in Keith Nichols' Midnight Follies Orchestra, and with Humphrey Lyttelton (1979-82). Still very active at Jazz Festivals and on touring jazz circuits.

Lars Gullin (b. Visby Sweden May 1928 d. May 1976) worked with Arne Domnerus' Orchestra (1951-3). In 1954 became the first European performer to win a Downbeat jazz poll "New Star" category (1954), toured Italy with Chet Baker in 1959, the from mid-1960's he mainly devoted himself to composition. Was the character portrayed in the film "Sven Klang's Quintet" (1976). Initially influenced by cool jazz (Miles Davis, Lee Konitz, Stan Getz) but later developed his own distinctive style, exhibited remarkable facility and lightness of tone.

Jay Craig (b. Glasgow 1958) mainstay big band player, worked with Buddy Rich for three years before returning to the UK. Currently working regularly with the BBC Big Band.

Harry Klein (b. London 1928) worked with Victor Feldman (1952, 1955), Kenny Baker (1952, 1955, 1957), Ronnie Scott and Jack Parnell (1952-3). Toured Europe with Stan Kenton (1956). Voted top British baritone player in the Melody Maker Poll (1957). From the mid-1960's to 1980, worked sessions backing Ella Fitzgerald, Tony Bennett, Sammy Davis Jnr., among others.

Ronnie Ross (b. Calcutta India Oct.1933 d. London Dec.1991) worked first with Don Rendell (who persuaded him to switch from tenor to baritone saxophone), then with Tony Crombie and Ted Heath. Represented the UK at the 1958 Newport Jazz Festival as member of Marshall Brown's International Band. Performed with Woody Herman's Anglo-American Herd (1959). Made several popular and commercial recordings (see Lou Reed's A Walk on the Wild Side). Recorded with John Dankworth (1961-4). Worked with the Clarke-Boland Big Band (1965-6), Friedrich Gulda (1966), Tony Kinsey (1974) and Clark Terry (1977). Toured extensively with his own quartet (1986), and featured regularly as soloist on the jazz club circuit right up to his death in 1991. The UK's best modern, post-bop baritone player.

John Surman (b. Tavistock April 1944) worked with Mike Westbrook (1958-75). Performed at the Montreaux Jazz Festival in 1968, where he won an award as best soloist. During late 1960's played with Graham Collier, Mike Gibbs, Dave Holland, Chris McGregor and John McLaughlan. Formed the first of his own groups in 1968. Toured with Francy Boland's Big Band (1970). From 1969 to 1972 toured with Barre Phillips and Stu Martin as The Trio, and from 1973-5 played with Mike Osborne and Alan Skidmore as S.O.S. With Stan Tracey (1978), the Brass Project (from 1981), Graham Collier's Hoarded Dreams Big Band, and Gil Evans' British Orchestras (1983, 1986, 1987). An avant-garde player, noted for his use of the extreme upper register of the instrument, and various assisted techniques, including synthesised sound and pre-recorded tapes with combined voices.

Joe Temperley (b. Cowdenbeath Sept.1929) first achieved prominence with the Humphrey Lyttelton Band (1958-65), in 1965 settled in New York, worked with Woody Herman (1966-7), Buddy Rich, Joe Henderson, Duke Pearson and the Jazz Composer's Orchestra. Recorded with the Thad Jones-Mel Lewis Orchestra (1969), Clark Terry (1970). In October 1974, as Carney's replacement, played with the Ellington Band (under Mercer Ellington). Has a broad-based style which won him considerable praise from Charles Mingus and Warren Vaché. Has a fluent style which exudes warmth and tenderness.

Selected Discography

(Note: Albums which are currently deleted from the catalogue, or are difficult to obtain, are marked accordingly but are included in the list as being important examples of the individual's work.)

Pepper Adams
My One & Only Love (1957); West Wind 2053 CD
Critic's Choice (1957); Vogue LAE 12134 (deleted)
The Cool Sound of Pepper Adams (1957); Savoy SV-0198
Stardust (with Donald Byrd) (1957); Bethlehem 6018-2
10–4 at the 5 Spot (1958); Riverside OJCCD-031
Out of This World (1961); Fresh Sound FSR-CD 137
Pepper Adams plays Charles Mingus (1963); Fresh Sound FSR-CD 177
Ephemera (1973); Spotlite PA6 LP (deleted)
Julian (1975); Enja 2060–(deleted)
Twelfth and Pingree (1975); Enja 2074 (deleted)
Reflectory (1978); Muse MR 5182 LP
The Master (1980); Muse MR 5213 LP
Conjuration: Fat Tuesday's Session (1983); Reservoir RSR 113 CD
Exhilaration (with Peter Leitch) (1984)

Nick Brignola
Baritone Madness (1977); Beehive 7000 (with Pepper Adams)
Burn Brigade (1979); Beehive 7010 (with Ronnie Cuber and Cecil Payne)
LA Bound (1979); Night Life SB 2003 (LP) / CDNLR 3007 (CD)
A Tribute to Gerry Mulligan (1984); Stash STCD 574
Raincheck (1988); Reservoir RSR CD 108
On a Different Level (1989); Reservoir RSR CD112
What It Takes (1990); Reservoir RSR CD 117
Like Old Times (1994); Reservoir RSR CD 133
The Flight of the Eagle (1996); Reservoir RSR CD 145
Nick Brignola Tour de Force (2001); Reservoir RSR CD 168

Harry Carney (with Duke Ellington)
The Great Paris Concert (1963); Atlantic Jazz 7567-81303-2 CD
Jazz Group (1964); Sacem Jazz Anthology 550192 CD
The English Concert (1971): Togo Brava - Brava Togo Suite; (deleted)

Serge Chaloff
We the People Bop: Memorial (1946-9); Cool & Blue CVB CD 102
The Fable of Mable (1954); Black Lion BLCD 760923
Blue Serge (1954); Affinity (deleted)
Serge and Boots (1954); Vogue LAE 12052 (deleted)

Ronnie Cuber
The Eleventh Day of Aquarius (); Xanadu 156 LP
Passion Fruit (); Electric Bird K28P 6347 CD/LP
Pin Point (); Electric Bird K28P 6415 CD/LP
Cubism (1991); Fresh Sound FSR CD 188
Airplay (1992); Steeplechase SCCD 31309
The Scene is Clean (1993); Milestone 9218

Charlie Fowlkes
Dance Along With Basie (1959); Roulette 52036

Bob Gordon
Bob Gordon Memorial (1953-4); Fresh Sound FSR-CD 180
(with Chet Baker) Ensemble and Sextet (1953-6); Fresh Sound FSR CD 175
(with Clifford Brown) Jazz Immortal (1954); Pacific Jazz CDP 7468502
(with Tal Farlow) Jazz Masters 41 (1955-8); Verve 527365-2

Lars Gullin
(with Clifford Brown) Memorial (1953); Original Jazz Classics OJC 017
The Great Lars Gullin
Volumes 1 to 5 (1955-70); Dragon DRLP 35, 75, 127, 156, 181
(with Stan Getz) In Sweden (1958-60); Dragon DRCD 263 2CD
(with Archie Shepp) The House I Live In (1963); Steeplechase SCC 6013
Portrait of My Pals (1964); EMI (Swedish) 7924292
Bluesport (1974); EMI (Swedish) 1364612
Aeros Aromatica Atomica Suite (1976); EMI (Swedish) 4750752

Gerry Mulligan
[Any of the Quartet and Sextet recordings]
[Any of the "Mulligan Meets . . ." series]
Pleyel Concerts Volumes 1 & 2 (1954); Vogue 13411/2
I Want to Live (Jazz Combo) (1957); London LTZ-T 15161 (deleted)
What is There To Say? (1959); Columbia 475699
The Concert Big Band (1960); RTE Europe 710382/3
The Age of Steam (1971); A&M 396996-2
Little Big Horn (1973); GRP 95032
Dragonfly (1995); Telarc Jazz CD-83377

Leo Parker
Prestige First Sessions Vol.1 (1950); Prestige PCD 24114
Let Me Tell You 'Bout It (1960); Blue Note CDP784087
Rollin' With Leo (); Blue Note BST 84095 LP (deleted)

Cecil Payne
Patterns of Jazz (1956); Savoy SV 0135 CD
Performing Charlie Parker Music (1961); Egmont AJS7-S LP (deleted)
Stop and Listen To . . . (1962); Fresh Sound FSR CD 193
Bird Gets the Worm (1976); Muse MR 5061 LP (deleted)
Casbah (1985); Stash CD 572

Billy Root
(with Dizzy Gillespie) Birk's Works (1957); Verve 527900-2
(with Lee Morgan) Dizzy Atmosphere (1966); Orig. Jazz Classics OJC 1762

Ronnie Ross
Stompin' with the Ronnie Ross Quintet (1958); Ember EMB 3323 (deleted)
Swinging Sounds of the Jazz Makers (1959) (deleted)
Beatle Music by the Session Men (1967) (deleted)
Cleopatra's Needle (1968); Fontana Jazz SFJL 915 (deleted)

ROVA (Saxophone Quartet)
This, This, This, This (1979); Moers Music 01080 LP (deleted)
Saxophone Diplomacy (1983); Hat Art CD 6068
Favourite Street (1983); Black Saint BSR 0076
Beat Kennel (1987); Black Saint BSR 0126
The Works Vol.1 (1992); Soul Note 120176-2

Sahib Shihab
Jazz Sahib (1957); Savoy SV-0141 CD
The Jazz We Heard Last Summer (1957); Savoy SV-0228
Sentiments (1971); Storyville SLP1008

Gary Smulyan
The Lure of Beauty (1990); Criss Cross 1049
Homage (1991); Criss Cross 1068
Saxophone Mosaic (1993); Criss Cross 1092

John Surman
Morning Glory (1973); FMR CD 21
The Amazing Adventures of Simon Simon (1981); ECM 1193
Adventure Playground (1991); ECM 1463
The Brass Project (1992); ECM 1478

Joe Temperley
Nightingale (1991); Hep CD 2052
Concerto for Joe (1994); Hep CD 2062

29th Street Saxophone Quartet
Watch Your Step (1985); New Note NN 1002 LP (deleted)
The Real Deal (1987); New Note NN 1006 LP (deleted)
Live (1988); Red RR 123223 LP/CD
Milano New York Bridge (1993); Red 123262-2

World Saxophone Quartet
Point of No Return (1977); Moers 01034
W.S.Q. (1980); Black Saint 120046
Plays Duke Ellington (1986); Elektra Musician 979137
Dances and Ballads (1987); Elektra Musician 979164
Rhythm and Blues (1988); Elektra Musician 60864


1 See Rockin' in Rhythm, The Great Paris Concert (1963). Note that Carney has the melody in the statement of the theme. (Note also, his famous clarinet solo which became an essential part of the performance). (return)

2 Balliett, Whitney, Dinosaurs in the Morning, publ. Phoenix House, 1962. The How Long Blues, p.187. Reviewing an Ellington concert in 1961. (return)

3 Carr, Ian; Fairweather, Digby; Priestly, Brian (1987), Jazz the Essential Companion. See the main entry for Harry Carney, p.76. (return)

4 Kernfeld, Barry (Editor), (1994), The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz. See the photograph of the Weintraub Syncopators, and the reference to the Six Brown Brothers vaudeville act, pp.1088-9. (return)

5 Carr, Fairweather, Priestley (ibid.) and Kernfield, (ibid.) See the individual references for all the names cited in the text for further biographical details, bibliographical references, and for a summary of other recordings not included in my brief discography. (return)

6 Peter Clayton, (1990) An interview with Gerry Mulligan, broadcast during the interval of a concert from the Glasgow Jazz Festival when Mulligan was Composer in Residence. (BBC Radio 3) (return)

7 See discography, but particularly The 'Fable of Mable' Album, (1954). This album shows Serge's use of programme music techniques in jazz through the use of 'leit-motifs,' and the piece's suite-like composition. (return)

8 Crow, Bill, (1990), Jazz Anecdotes, publ. Oxford University Press, p.80. Chaloff was dealing in narcotics and had become unreliable. Herman resolved to fire him but when Serge got wind of this, he threw the baritone sax parts into the Charles River in Boston, knowing that Woody would be unable to re-write them in time. It took a further six months before Woody was able to replace Serge! (return)

9 Bob Gordon worked extensively on the West Coast. It is worth seeking out the recorded examples of his work in both big band and small group contexts to appreciate his facility and inventiveness (particularly those with Shelley Manne, Maynard Ferguson and Jack Montrose). (return)

10 Supersax: An ensemble of studio musicians performing arrangements of the improvised solos of Charlie Parker – the ensemble included Buddy Clark, Med Flory, Bill Perkins, Warne Marsh, Jack Nimitz, Jay Migliori, Conte Condoli & a rhythm section. (return)

11 As well as playing in the revolutionary Nonet, which included French horn and tuba, Mulligan contributed three arrangements - Jeru, Godchild and Venus di Milo (his own composition). (return)

12 Mulligan, Gerry. "I Want to Live" soundtrack. Mulligan appeared in the film as himself, being the favourite jazz musician of Barbara Graham, the character in the film who is eventually convicted of murder and executed. Throughout the film, Mulligan's horn is featured as the main vehicle for the expression of emotion, drama and tension. The excellent score was written by Johnny Mandel and played by an ensemble which included Art Pepper and Frank Rosolino. (return)

13 Cook, Richard and Morton, Brian, (1997). The Penguin Guide to Jazz on CD (3rd Edition). See individual references to the players mentioned, and to the accompanying brief discography. (return)

14 Gullin, Lars. His position was important as a major influence in the development of the European jazz scene. His appearance with major players as diverse as Stan Getz, Clifford Brown and Archie Shepp underline his significance. (return)

15 Carney, Harry (1964) For a recorded example of Carney's circular breathing technique, see Sophisticated Lady on Ellington: Jazz Group 1964. (return)